The foundations of Taekwondo are built from the Martial Art. Martial Art training includes basic techniques, step sparring, self defence, and breaking, as well as Poomsae and Sparring. These disciplines are tested in Kup (coloured belts) and Dan (black belts) Martial Art gradings.
Basic techniques are the blocks, strikes, kicks and stances often demonstrated as combinations of the techniques in a flowing movement. Step sparring is pre-arranged defence to a punch using blocks, strikes and kicks, with advanced defence defending against low and high punches and executing takedowns. Self defence is the defence to an attack, e.g. bear hugs, wrist grabs, hair grabs. Advanced self defence includes locks and takedowns. Breaking is the destruction of an object using a basic technique. Commonly breaking is using a wood board or a re-breakable board.
Poomsae and Sparring are discussed in further detail below.